Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Latin Kings And Nortenos

Part One: Burn out

"Origins and Consequences of Burnout Syndrome-Burn-Out"

What is the Burn Out or syndrome of "burnout"?

The term "Burn out" comes from the English and translated into Castilian by "burnt" . A mid-year 74 psychiatrist Herbert Freudenberger described Burn out syndrome, but not with that name, as a psychiatric disorder who were experiencing some practitioners working in any institution whose object of work are people.

The psychiatrist working in a clinic in New York and watched as the vast majority of the volunteers who worked with drug users in a given period, usually a year ago, suffered from progressive loss of power, until the exhaustion, anxiety and depression symptoms and as motivation in their work and patients aggressively.

Herbert Freudenberger defined it as "a sense of failure and an exhausting experience that results from an overload of energy demands, personal resources of the worker or spiritual force."

In the same dates (1974), the social psychologist Christina Maslach used the term Burn out, used previously by California law to describe the gradual process of loss of professional responsibility and cynical indifference among coworkers, to refer to a set of emotional responses to affect professional help.

determined that the victims suffered "emotional overload" syndrome or Burn out and called it "syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals whose work involves the care or assistance people. "

Christina Maslach (1976) studied what he called " professional liability loss" and, from the psychosocial field, described the syndrome without stigmatizing psychiatrically the person. To Maslach burnout syndrome can be given only in the helping professions (eg, between health and educators who serve the public.) In 1986, Maslach and Jackson , define the syndrome as "a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people."

In 1988, Pines and Aronson propose a broader definition, not restricted to the helping professions, " is the state of mental exhaustion, physical and emotional, produced Chronic involvement by working in situations with emotional demands. "

Brill, another researcher in this area, seen as a dysfunctional state related to work in a person who does not have other significant psychopathological disorder.

literature gives us at least seventeen different denominations in Castilian for the phenomenon, although some of them show a great similarity. Considering the degree of similarity, the names can be classified into three groups.

- A first group collect the names which refer to the name in Castilian the original Anglo-Saxon term burnout. In this group of names is spoken of:

• Burnout, work ( Gil-Monte & Peiró , 1997)
• burnout at work ( Salanova et al, 2000)
• Syndrome burning at work (Guillén and Santamaria , 1999; Manassero, 2000)
• burnout ( Da Silva et al, 1999)
• Burnout ( Chacón et al, 1999) • Being burned
(Olmeda et al , 2002)
• burnout ( Aluja, 1997)

- A second group includes those denominations that choose an alternative to the literal translation. Are names that are characterized by making reference to the semantic content of speech, or the content of pathology, rather than a more or less literal translation of the Anglo-Saxon:

• Wear work (García , and Llor Sáez, 2000)
• Occupational Wear ( López, 1996)
• Burnout ( Aron et al 2000)
• Burnout ( Belloch et al, 2000)
• professional fatigue syndrome ( Belloch et al, 2000)

Finally, a third group collect those studies are considered to Burn out syndrome is synonymous with work stress, and therefore it is possible to call it:

care • Chronic stress ( Manzano, 2001),
• Work stress care ( Arranz, Torres, Cancio and Hernandez, 1999),
• Professional stress ( Aluja, 1997)
• Work Stress ( Fuertes et al., 1997; García et al., 1999)

The number of names can be extended to nineteen to include the term "employee syndrome" offered on the website of the University of California (, and the term "disease or syndrome Tomás Tomás ( Meeroff , 1997 ; Mingote and Perez, 1999; Tarela , 2002).

Once the worker is affected, if not with foreign exchange intervention conditions that have motivated this change, protection, relief or by a labor adjustment will fail to regain their health. The burnout does not occur as a result of inadequate wages, or incompetence by lack of knowledge or because of physical difficulties or the result of any existing mental disorder.

In my opinion, these health workers have not been rewarded verbally by the company, organization, senior officials and relatives of patients not assessed its delivery, enthusiasm, performance and sometimes sacrifice. Conclusions

to define the concept of burnout:

• Burnout is a consequence of exposure to job stressors. This interaction of workers with certain risk working conditions can cause the syndrome, being, therefore, a consequence on health in the person's work derives.

• We need to work on the development of relational exchange is given an intense and lasting worker - client, worker-worker-patient or user. This response is characterized more work " Human Services" for assistance. However, has been identified in other professionals such as managers, middle managers, athletes, coaches, etc..

• The scientific community conceptually accepted empirical approach of three-dimensionality of the syndrome (Maslach and Jackson , 1981), which síntomatiza in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment.

The concepts of stress and burnout are different constructs:

" The World Health Organization (WHO )
defines stress as the set of physiological reactions that prepare the body for action
" .

Y The notion of stress responses coordinated groups, and listed specific, physiological, and then eventually pathogenic not specific to the causative agent, the body produces when it is subjected to demands, requests, demands and environmental stimuli, this reaction
beyond the specific response associated with the nature and intensity of stimulus. "

This definition is not entirely satisfactory, some authors like himself Selye, recognizes that the definition of stress is problematic, as different viewpoints and often pragmatic and operational research for each course.

Selye states: " While stress is the sum of the changes
nonspecific produced in the body at a time
either, the general adaptation syndrome (EMS) covers all
nonspecific changes that develop over time during continuous exposure
attacks stressor. "

GHS develops gradually in three phases :

• Alarm Response • Phase resistance

• Exhaustion Phase

risk factors at the organizational level:

• Organizational Structure very hierarchical and rigid
• Lack of instrumental support the organization
• Excessive bureaucracy, "professionalized bureaucracy"
• Lack of employee participation
• Lack of coordination between units
• Lack of practical training staff in new technologies
• Lack of reinforcement or reward
• Lack of professional development
• conflict in the organization
• inappropriate management style perceived
• Inequality in the management of HR

Risk factors relating to job design:

• Work overload, emotional demands in the interaction with the patient
• Offset between responsibility and autonomy
• Lack of time to the attention of the user (patient, customer, subordinate, etc.).
• Role Dysfunction: conflict, role ambiguity, overload
• emotional load excessive
• Lack of control of the outcome of the task
• Lack of social support
• unfinished tasks which are endless decisional autonomy
• Little economic stressors

• • Dissatisfaction at work

Risk Factors Relating to interpersonal relationships:

• Treatment with difficult or problematic users
• conflict with customers
• Negative workflow
• Strained relationships, competitive, peer conflict and users
• Lack of social support
• Lack of collaboration between partners in complementary tasks
• Process social contagion of burnout
• Lack of reciprocity in social exchanges

Research on burnout increased dramatically in Spain during the nineties. Interest in the study of this phenomenon, which began in the psychological and psychiatric literature in the Attached to the mid of 1970 (Freudenberger , 1974, 1975), seem far from exhausted, projects into the new century.

The burnout is a process that arises in response to chronic stress and, therefore, is a phenomenon that is linked to the emergence of psychosocial risks at work. This phenomenon can be classified as the result of a process of psychological harassment at work.

There are two questions that often arise when talking about the origin of the term and the phenomenon of burn for the job:

a) Is a new or disease existed before of the seventies?

Does burnout occurs only in professional help or can also develop in other types of workers?

a) is true that burnout is sometimes characterized as an emerging pathology, and is referred to as one of the new risk psychosocial work, this phenomenon is not new to the workforce.

With burnout happened something similar to what happened with obesity. The phenomenon has always been there, you may always have been people living with burnout, and it is not surprising that this is so since the work was configured as a collective and social phenomenon.

Over the last century were descriptions of the phenomenon, both in the scientific literature (Schwartz and Hill, 1953) and in the popular literature of non-scientist, who even called it the scientific term that is currently ( Greene, 1961). It has taken a series of social, cultural and organizational, in the world of work, as discussed below, that the phenomenon "out of the closet" and that has been given the epithet, often exaggerated, of " epidemic. "

b) Regarding the second question that often arises, I must say that burnout is not a disease exclusive to professional help, or the service sector.

When reviewing the literature on burnout, it is found that most studies have been conducted with samples of professional educators and health professionals.

If we further consider that burnout can become infected (eg, through social learning processes or any mechanism of social influence), in all likelihood the spread of the phenomenon will be greater than between other groups with fewer individuals, or where they are more scattered within the organization. However, there are studies which conclude on the presence of significant levels of the syndrome in groups such as women workers ( Westman, Etzion and Danon, 2001), sellers ( Klein and Verbeke, 1999), engineers and technicians and athletes.

even versions of questionnaires have been developed to estimate the syndrome outside the professional services sector.

Any professional or worker with a great vocation, which comes to his profession, with high levels of professional idealism and to develop their research on the treatment of others may develop burnout. One could argue that "any worker who goes on with their work can lead to burnout.

The interest that the phenomenon has aroused in the academic world is reflected in the frequency with which they are organized scientific meetings to discuss the issue, or the frequency with which studies are presented in international and national congresses. These studies with indicator has achieved prominence within psychology and even medicine.

The emergence of companies dedicated to the study stress (eg the English Society for the Study of Anxiety and Stress, SEAS), which in its conferences and publications (for example, the journal Anxiety and Stress) devote considerable attention to the study of burnout is also a significant indicator of this situation.

According to studies Freudenberger this syndrome would be contagious, since workers who have it can affect others with their disgust, despair and cynicism, which in a short period of time the organization as entity, may fall into despair widespread. Other authors such as
Savicki, Seidman and Zager made possible to generate epidemic effects.

aspects manifested in the Burn Out


- Mental Manifestations: feelings of emptiness, exhaustion, failure, helplessness, low self-esteem and poor personal. It is also common state of nervousness, restlessness, difficulty concentrating, and low frustration tolerance, with paranoid behavior and / or aggressive towards students and their families, colleagues and family.

- Manifestations Physical: headaches, insomnia, musculoskeletal pains, gastrointestinal disturbances, tachycardia. Behavioral

- Prevalence of addictive habits (snuff, alcohol, drugs) as well as tactics to avoid unpleasant situations that often lead to poor performance and as extreme as in the absenteeism. Violent behavior can be very frequent.


- emotional distancing as a means of protection ego, boredom and cynical attitude, impatience and irritability, disorientation, feelings of helplessness, inability to concentrate and feelings of depression. Weather


- lower labor productivity and declining quality of services provided to customers, increased hostile interactions, frequent interpersonal conflicts in the workplace and within their own family, poor communications.


Gillespie differentiated two types of Burn arising out precisely because of the ambiguity in the conceptualization syndrome:

active Burn out

• It is characterized by the maintenance of affirmative conduct. Relates to organizational factors or elements external to the profession.

Burn out passive

• Predominantly feelings of withdrawal and apathy. It has to do with internal psychosocial factors. Remember

dimensional syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment of Maslasch and Jackson.

emotional and physical exhaustion is characterized by an absence or lack energy, enthusiasm and a sense of scarcity of resources. These feelings can be added the frustration and tension among workers who realize that are no longer able to spend more energy.

- The depersonalization or dehumanization is characterized by treating customers, colleagues and the organization as objects. Workers can demonstrate emotional numbing, a psychological state in the prevailing cynicism and emotional deception, fueled criticism of your entire environment and all the others.

- The decline of personal fulfillment at work is characterized as a tendency of workers to self-evaluate negatively. People unhappy with themselves dissatisfied with their professional development, experienced a decline in the sense of competence and success in their work and their ability to interact with people.


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