Thursday, February 25, 2010

Pinis Check By Female

(Part II)

Phases Burn Out

Jerry Edelwich and Archie Brodsky (1980) define the burn out "as a progressive loss of idealism, energy and patterns experienced by people in the helping professions as a result of working conditions" .

propose four stages through which everyone passes to burn out:

• Stage idealism and enthusiasm.
The individual has a high energy level for the job, unrealistic expectations on him and still do not know what you can achieve with it. The person is involved too and there is an overload of volunteer work. Early in his career there intrinsic motivation enough. Hipervalorización is a professional capacity which leads to not recognize the internal and external boundaries, which can affect their professional duties. The failure of expectations aroused, at this stage, a feeling of disappointment that makes the worker go to the next stage.

stagnation stage.
involves a decrease in the activities when the individual finds the unreality of his expectations, going the loss of idealism and enthusiasm. The individual begins to recognize that your life needs some changes, which necessarily include the professional field.
• Stage
apathy and frustration.
is the central stage of burnout syndrome. The frustration of expectations leads the individual to the cessation of its activities, develop apathy and lack of interest. Begin to emerge, emotional, behavioral and physical. One of the common responses in this phase is the attempt to remove the frustrating situation. Avoiding contact with colleagues, is missing work and often there is the abandonment of this and the most extreme cases of occupation. These behaviors begin to become constants paving the way for the last stage of burn out, the distancing.

• Stage distance.
The person is chronically frustrated in their work, leading to feelings of total emptiness that can manifest in the form of emotional distance and vocational impairment. There are an investment of time spent at work compared to the first stage. In the place of professional enthusiasm and idealism the person happens to avoid challenges and patients is quite common and especially not to risk the job security. There is a cognitive and emotional collapse. Causes

The Burn out is a consequence of stressful situations that cause the individual is more prone to suffer. Stress often at work, primarily because the interaction that the individual has with the various conditions of work are key to the appearance of burn out.

The actions that trigger the onset of this syndrome are usually intense and / or long-lasting, because the burn out is conceptualized as an ongoing process that manifests itself in a gradual manner that will internalize the individual to have on it's own feelings syndrome.

There are certain factors which contribute to burn out:
• The nature of the task
• The organizational and institutional variable
• The interpersonal variable (colleagues, family, friends, social support networks)
• The individual variable (professional characteristics such as age, gender, experience, personality traits)

Below is a list of statistics from studies by various specialists that provide information on the influence of Burn out syndrome according to the profession.


Kyriacou (1980) Teachers 25%
Pines, Arason and Kafry (1981) Different professions 45%
Maslach and Jackson (1982) Nurses
20-35% Henderson (1984) Medical / as 30-40%
Smith, Birch and Marchant (1984) 12-40%
Library Rosse Johnson and Crow (1991) Police and medical personnel 20%
García Izquierdo (1991) Nurses
Jorgesen 17% (1992) Nursing students 39%
Price and Spence (1994) Police officers and staff 20%
health Deckard Meterko and Field (1994) Medical / as 50%

Consequences of Burn Out

The most important concept is that the Burn-out is a process (rather than a state) and is progressive (accumulation of intensive contact with consultants).
The process includes:
1. Gradual exposure to burnout
idealism wear 3. Lack of achievement

There are also a number of effects caused by this phenomenon:

- adversely affects the worker's resistance, making it more susceptible to compassion fatigue ( Compassion Fatigue).

- Favors Silent Response ( Danieli, 1984, Baranowsky 1997) which is the inability to address the experiences of the consultants, that are overwhelming.

- Gradually, the picture worsens in direct relation to the magnitude of the problem, initially adaptive processes protect the individual, but his repeated and often overwhelms them exhausted, creating feelings of frustration and sense of failure, there is a direct relationship between symptoms, seriousness and responsibility of the tasks performed.
- Feeling used, impaired or exhausted because of excessive energy demands
to, strength and personal resources, also creates intense impact on the individual and their family environment.

- states of fatigue or frustration are the result of devotion to a cause, lifestyle or relationship that failed while trying to get an expected reward.

- The progressive loss of idealism, energy and purpose experienced by many working professionals helping others are the result of their working conditions.

- The burnout syndrome is the last step in the progression of multiple failed attempts to manage and reduce a variety of negative social situations.
The list of psychological symptoms that can cause this syndrome is extensive and can be mild, moderate, severe or extreme.

One of the first symptoms of mild but serves Alarm Level I is the difficulty getting up in the morning or pathological fatigue, at a moderate distance is presented, irritability, cynicism, fatigue, boredom, progressive loss of idealism which make the individual emotionally exhausted with feelings of frustration, incompetence, guilt and negative self-assessment.
Serious expressed in the abuse of psychotropic drugs, absenteeism, abuse of alcohol and drugs, among other symptoms.

is the repetition of stressors that shapes the picture of chronic, low self-esteem produces a state of overwhelming frustration with melancholy and sadness, feelings of helplessness, loss, failure, state of neurosis, psychosis in some cases with distress and / or depression and feel that life is not worth it, reaching in extreme cases to ideas of committing suicide.

prevention measures

Most authors ( Byrne, Maslach, Huberman ..) agree that prevention is a key to remedy the effects produced by the Burn Out. Preventive work affects existing political and economic decision unrealistic positioning of administrations regarding the current situation of education.

prevention measures can be divided into three sections depending on the application form:

individual intervention strategies :

mitigation techniques focus on reducing the emotional experience of stress caused by various factors taken into account by acting on them. Within the education sector there are different methods:

- Cognitive-behavioral : teach off of work and personal life separate from work and family, using techniques to improve the performance of work trying to get the maximum effectiveness in the minimum possible time. Some authors propose training based on the withdrawal of attention, reinforcement, time out, control of contingencies, self-reinforcing and avoidance or the use of appropriate contingencies, task analysis, progressive strengthening and control of problems in class.

- psychodynamic orientation. This methodology is rarely used but should highlight the work of Andrianopoulos on psychoeducation and counseling. Also, in the literature of physical techniques that act on the physiological effects of stress and Burn out (insomnia, tachycardia, psychomotor restlessness and other psychosomatic responses characteristic of anxiety) such as proposal Travers and Cooper physical exercise, yoga, relaxation and travel.

These techniques are not used systematically nor with scientific rigor with groups of teachers, indeed, some piscológicas techniques presented in the literature as potentially reducing stress and anxiety to benefit from the results obtained with clinical populations however, there have been no serious studies that apply individually or in groups in teaching, perhaps because of methodological difficulties involved in its implementation.

• Intervention Strategies
• organizational intervention strategies

Can you try?

The main difficulty in treatment is the resistance of physicians to admit their own emotional problems and take the role of the patient (worst patients). Besides being special patients receive lower quality treatment and less time than the patients than health.
currently considered an occupational disease. Responsibility is shared, individual, collegial and institutional, the task of improving the working conditions of health personnel to perform the clinical task at an optimal level of quality and efficiency. A draft medical assistance program ill, channeled through the medical associations.
The two most effective treatment methods are known, techniques and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. Both, in their complexity, require the psychiatrist and psychologist.

Treatment There is no specific treatment for the syndrome of "burnout", nor a simple strategy of prevention. Therapies that are used are designed to restore the psychological health and recovery of the affected job performance and are based on stress management, behavioral testing and empowerment self-control. Sometimes you need a short period of time off work and in severe cases we must resort to antidepressant medication.
The most effective solution to this syndrome would prevent the establishment of training courses aimed at enhancing psychosocial competence, emotional resources and strengthening professional psychological health of employees. The National Institute of Public Administration (INAP) is studying increasing its range of training courses for the treatment and control of stress and emotional intelligence in regard to work and other actions to enhance emotional resources public employees.

words to end

Finally, I tend to use the diagnostic label of "burnout syndrome." In Spain tend to popularize and introduce colloquial medical terms used in a short time young, old, educated and uneducated and lose their true meaning, content and diagnostic value. And what's worse, they "become fashionable" to ask for time off work as it was and remains a few years, neurasthenia, fibromyalgia, polymyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and the label on Burnout would not be calling soon down by "burnt." Thank

Miguel Pérez-Camacho Duque


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