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The Ethos of Psychiatry (2 nd part)

At best part of the moral and medical ethics, attempt to elucidate the basic principles and more specific "ethos" of psychiatry.

The relevance of psychiatry and medical psychology in the field of medical humanism, the plight of the values \u200b\u200bof modern civilization, the repeated declarations of human rights, etc ... are among many others, the motivations that lead us to an analysis of the substrate of ethics, codes of morality, ie, the "ethos". Before visions

monopole of psychiatric medical practice that run from the pessimism of the degradation exaltation to the most unlikely of ripening attempts to present the "ethos" present the same with the greatest objectivity related to the past and present of the historical development of ethical awareness, and particularly with the recent "universal declarations of rights humans. "

dynamic reality, and thus, changing the man, forced to watch for signs of the times to be lit whenever the valid characters of the "ethos" in this case of psychiatry, and it can be well aware that set at any time the conduct of all those involved with this medical specialty in a way must always be present in every act of health.


Prof. Dr. D. Alfonso Ruiz-Mateos M ª Jiménez de Tejada

CONTENTS 1. Introduction.

2. Ethos: feelings versus noesis.

3. Basic tenets of the ethos of psychiatry.

1. Introduction.

Within the broad framework of medical ethics and moral interests have always lit the basic principles and more specific to the ethos of psychiatry. Its relevance and of medical psychology in the field of medical humanism, the plight of the values \u200b\u200bof modern civilization; the repeated declarations of human rights, etc ... are, among many others, the motivations that lead us to an analysis of the substrate of ethics, codes, etc ... that is the ethos. To visions of medical practice monopolar psychiatric pessimism flowing from the degradation to the most unlikely of maturation exaltation; try to present the current ethos of it as objectively related to the past and present historical development of ethical awareness and particularly with the recent "universal declarations of human rights." Dynamic reality and thus, changing man requires to be Watch for signs of the times to always have clarified the ethos valid characters-in this case of psychiatry, and well aware that they can be configured at any time the conduct of all those involved with this medical specialty, in a way , must always be present in every act of health.

2. Ethos: feeling versus noesis.

When specifically specify the location of the ethos within the complexity of the human person, the Western tradition has pried the intellect and volition. Our position, however, prefers the hegemony of deep feelings. Although the ethos of the person to surface as reality unitary does not consider that his first existential intelligence, but deep feelings. In the latter lies the conception, gestation and birth of the world of ideas, specific formulations of the rules of conduct. From this perspective, we assume the following qualifications that Ortega y Gasset makes between ethos, ethics and morality: "I understand ethos simply moral reaction system operating in the spontaneity of each individual, class, people, period. The ethos is no ethics or morals that we have. Ethics are the ideological justification of a moral and, ultimately, a science. Morality is the ideal set of rules that might accept to mind, but often do not deliver. More or less the moral is always a Utopia. The ethos, by contrast, would be like the real moral, effective and in fact spontaneous reports every life "(1954)

Towards a clarification of concepts have an influence on what we have come to call passion and defect defined. Mean by ethos: the set of autonomous deep feelings, and only accidentally conditioned to emerge from the privacy of the person in relation to the world of values, their hierarchy and commitment to them.

points out: Deep in the sense that the semantics of the term mystical has Hondón and in a way, Endon of psychiatric nosology as these terms refer to roots (set of backgrounds, interests, habits or effects that are firm and stable one thing), in contrast, for both sentimental feelings fleeting or superficial as noetic regulations originating from mere socio-cultural inclinations. Autonomous: with this we note that there are intrinsic feelings of the human condition, feelings associated with their own selfhood, unchanged in its essential core of which are very irritating to exogenous stimuli that they face in their historic journey. Values: in the sense of the scope of the meaning and importance from any reality as seen from the greater or less relevance to the harmonious integration and maturant of the individual and groups.

3. Basic tenets of the ethos of psychiatry.

The most peculiar qualitative distinction of psychiatry branch is to be the quintessential humanistic or anthropological medicine. Psychiatry and Medical Psychology must be considered as "substantially" in any medical act. Anthropological significance of this arises with maximum emphasis the uniqueness and relevance of the ethos of both disciplines.

The aim of medicine is the person, or be really patient, if we consider preventive medicine, but the particular object of the medical act constitutes the dual phenomena and interactions of interpersonal encounter. On this fact rests the core of the medical ethos and are the Psychiatry and Psychology in charge of science research and teaching of this phenomenon, the most complex and sublime, no doubt, of medical practice. The meeting brings

as unambiguous ethical traits: respect sacred, fidelity, reverence, sincerity, trust, etc ... You can only view of the ideal posture, which comes from the reception open to the boundless respect, commitment to the highest value intramundane and integrating it. These qualities should be further enhanced as the you-the specifics of psychiatry, is a patient, suggestive but imprecisely called mentally ill. His status as a person, as such, unrepeatable uniqueness and personality changes will force more emphasis on maintaining a holistic approach, open to any sign clarifier with explicit awareness of the aphorism: "In homine nunquam satis."

The ethos of Psychiatry expresses its full meaning when it is this that "the most intense experience of personal freedom is love. It is paradoxical that while the subject is itself its center and it belongs only to itself is not really even himself. But when it comes out of himself and takes over the other to himself, receive from his hand his true self "(Romano Guardini, 1954)

consider among the most dire violations of the ethos of psychiatry positions that seek to make tight what is merely ontic and parcel in all. The history of psychiatry remains a sad spectacle of isolated, folded and loaded into single-colored visions of bravado and aggression. The ethos that emanates from the consciousness of the person as essentially true mystery and therefore incomprehensible to all professional forces of psychiatry to maintain an attitude of scientific humility, eclectic and open to any clarification. Somatogenic dimensions, psychogenic and sociogenic of the person with his character immanent and inescapable religious significance, are premises that can not be ignored for the correct formation of the ethos and practice of psychiatry.

The psychiatry professional shall maintain a special warning that its ethos is not manipulated by outside interests of his own scientific work and humanitarian. It must be aware that when psychiatry branch of medical humanism par excellence, is the favorite target of interest bastards intrusions originating from political, economic, pseudo, etc ... We can not accept the claim with confidence to those who believe that psychiatric ethics can only be accommodated in particular areas. Thus we find the more extreme options that run from the prying of exclusivist form of private medicine, even those who only support the hospitals. We believe in it, and we place a major emphasis, that the ethos of psychiatry and its correct implementation, where there will be a pro with a properly formed conscience and committed, able to maintain their beliefs over all the constraints that can come from the environment or its own fragility.

* Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology Alfonsiana-Rome University, Doctor of Theology, Sociology and Medicine, President of the Royal Academy of Medical Writers and Member of Scientific Committee of the Canarian Institute of Psychiatry.


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